User-defined functions - Azure Data Explorer (2023)

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User-defined functions are reusable subqueries that can be defined as part of the query itself (query-defined functions), or stored as part of the database metadata (stored functions). User-defined functions are invoked through a name, are provided with zero or more input arguments (which can be scalar or tabular), and produce a single value (which can be scalar or tabular) based on the function body.

A user-defined function belongs to one of two categories:

  • Scalar functions
  • Tabular functions, also known as views

The function's input arguments and output determine whether it's scalar or tabular, which then establishes how it might be used.

See Stored functions to create and manage entities that allow the reuse of Kusto queries or query parts.

To optimize multiple uses of the user-defined functions within a single query, see Optimize queries that use named expressions.

Scalar function

  • Has zero input arguments, or all its input arguments are scalar values
  • Produces a single scalar value
  • Can be used wherever a scalar expression is allowed
  • May only use the row context in which it's defined
  • Can only refer to tables (and views) that are in the accessible schema

Tabular function

  • Accepts one or more tabular input arguments, and zero or more scalar input arguments, and/or:
  • Produces a single tabular value

Function names

Valid user-defined function names must follow the same identifier naming rules as other entities.

The name must also be unique in its scope of definition.

Note

If a stored function and a table both have the same name, then any reference to that nameresolves to the stored function, not the table name. Use the table functionto reference the table instead.

Input arguments

Valid user-defined functions follow these rules:

  • A user-defined function has a strongly typed list of zero or more input arguments.
  • An input argument has a name, a type, and (for scalar arguments) a default value.
  • The name of an input argument is an identifier.
  • The type of an input argument is either one of the scalar data types, or a tabular schema.

Syntactically, the input arguments list is a comma-separated list of argument definitions, wrapped in parenthesis. Each argument definition is specified as

ArgName:ArgType [= ArgDefaultValue]

For tabular arguments, ArgType has the same syntax as the table definition (parenthesis and a list of column name/type pairs), with the addition of a solitary (*) indicating "any tabular schema".

For example:

SyntaxInput arguments list description
()No arguments
(s:string)Single scalar argument called s taking a value of type string
(a:long, b:bool=true)Two scalar arguments, the second of which has a default value
(T1:(*), T2(r:real), b:bool)Three arguments (two tabular arguments and one scalar argument)

Note

When using both tabular input arguments and scalar input arguments, put all tabular input arguments before the scalar input arguments.

Examples

A scalar function:

let Add7 = (arg0:long = 5) { arg0 + 7 };range x from 1 to 10 step 1| extend x_plus_7 = Add7(x), five_plus_seven = Add7()

A tabular function taking no arguments:

let tenNumbers = () { range x from 1 to 10 step 1};tenNumbers| extend x_plus_7 = x + 7

A tabular function taking both a tabular input and a scalar input:

let MyFilter = (T:(x:long), v:long) { T | where x >= v};MyFilter((range x from 1 to 10 step 1), 9)

Output

x
9
10

A tabular function that uses a tabular input with no column specified.Any table can be passed to a function, and no table columns can be referenced inside the function.

let MyDistinct = (T:(*)) { T | distinct *};MyDistinct((range x from 1 to 3 step 1))

Output

x
1
2
3

Declaring user-defined functions

The declaration of a user-defined function provides:

  • Function name
  • Function schema (parameters it accepts, if any)
  • Function body

Note

Overloading functions isn't supported. You can't create multiple functions with the same name and different input schemas.

Tip

Lambda functions do not have a name and are bound to a name using a let statement. Therefore, they can be regarded as user-defined stored functions.Example: Declaration for a lambda function that accepts two arguments (a string called s and a long called i). It returns the product of the first (after converting it into a number) and the second. The lambda is bound to the name f:

let f=(s:string, i:long) { tolong(s) * i};

The function body includes:

  • Exactly one expression, which provides the function's return value (scalar or tabular value).
  • Any number (zero or more) of let statements, whose scope is that of the function body. If specified, the let statements must precede the expression defining the function's return value.
  • Any number (zero or more) of query parameters statements, which declare query parameters used by the function. If specified, they must precede the expression defining the function's return value.

Note

Other kinds of query statements that are supported at the query "top level" aren't supported inside a function body.Any two statements must be separated by a semicolon.

Examples of user-defined functions

The following section shows examples of how to use user-defined functions.

User-defined function that uses a let statement

The following example shows a user-defined function (lambda) that accepts a parameter named ID. The function is bound to the name Test and makes use of three let statements, in which the Test3 definition uses the ID parameter. When run, the output from the query is 70:

let Test = (id: int) { let Test2 = 10; let Test3 = 10 + Test2 + id; let Test4 = (arg: int) { let Test5 = 20; Test2 + Test3 + Test5 + arg }; Test4(10)};range x from 1 to Test(10) step 1| count

User-defined function that defines a default value for a parameter

The following example shows a function that accepts three arguments. The latter two have a default value and don't have to be present at the call site.

let f = (a:long, b:string = "b.default", c:long = 0) { strcat(a, "-", b, "-", c)};print f(12, c=7) // Returns "12-b.default-7"

Invoking a user-defined function

A user-defined function that takes no arguments and can be invoked either by its name, or by its name and an empty argument list in parentheses.

Examples:

// Bind the identifier a to a user-defined function (lambda) that takes// no arguments and returns a constant of type long:let a=(){123};// Invoke the function in two equivalent ways:range x from 1 to 10 step 1| extend y = x * a, z = x * a()
// Bind the identifier T to a user-defined function (lambda) that takes// no arguments and returns a random two-by-two table:let T=(){ range x from 1 to 2 step 1 | project x1 = rand(), x2 = rand()};// Invoke the function in two equivalent ways:// (Note that the second invocation must be itself wrapped in// an additional set of parentheses, as the union operator// differentiates between "plain" names and expressions)union T, (T())

A user-defined function that takes one or more scalar arguments can be invoked by using the function name and a concrete argument list in parentheses:

let f=(a:string, b:string) { strcat(a, " (la la la)", b)};print f("hello", "world")

A user-defined function that takes one or more table arguments (with any number of scalar arguments) and can be invoked using the function name and a concrete argument list in parentheses:

let MyFilter = (T:(x:long), v:long) { T | where x >= v};MyFilter((range x from 1 to 10 step 1), 9)

You can also use the operator invoke to invoke a user-defined function thattakes one or more table arguments and returns a table. This function is useful when the first concrete table argument to the function is the source of the invoke operator:

let append_to_column_a=(T:(a:string), what:string) { T | extend a=strcat(a, " ", what)};datatable (a:string) ["sad", "really", "sad"]| invoke append_to_column_a(":-)")

Default values

Functions may provide default values to some of their parameters under the following conditions:

  • Default values may be provided for scalar parameters only.
  • Default values are always literals (constants). They can't be arbitrary calculations.
  • Parameters with no default value always precede parameters that do have a default value.
  • Callers must provide the value of all parameters with no default values arranged in the same order as the function declaration.
  • Callers don't need to provide the value for parameters with default values, but may do so.
  • Callers may provide arguments in an order that doesn't match the order of the parameters. If so, they must name their arguments.

The following example returns a table with two identical records. In the first invocation of f, the arguments are completely "scrambled", so each one is explicitly given a name:

let f = (a:long, b:string = "b.default", c:long = 0) { strcat(a, "-", b, "-", c)};union (print x=f(c=7, a=12)), // "12-b.default-7" (print x=f(12, c=7)) // "12-b.default-7"

Output

x
12-b.default-7
12-b.default-7

View functions

A user-defined function that takes no arguments and returns a tabular expression can be marked as a view. Marking a user-defined function as a view means that the function behaves like a table whenever a wildcard table name resolution is performed.The following example shows two user-defined functions, T_view and T_notview, and shows how only the first one is resolved by the wildcard reference in the union:

let T_view = view () { print x=1 };let T_notview = () { print x=2 };union T*

Restrictions

The following restrictions apply:

  • User-defined functions can't pass into toscalar() invocation information that depends on the row-context in which the function is called.
  • User-defined functions that return a tabular expression can't be invoked with an argument that varies with the row context.
  • A function taking at least one tabular input can't be invoked on a remote cluster.
  • A scalar function can't be invoked on a remote cluster.

The only place a user-defined function may be invoked with an argument that varies with the row context is when the user-defined function is composed of scalar functions only and doesn't use toscalar().

Example of Restriction 1

// Supported:// f is a scalar function that doesn't reference any tabular expressionlet Table1 = datatable(xdate:datetime)[datetime(1970-01-01)];let Table2 = datatable(Column:long)[1235];let f = (hours:long) { now() + hours*1h };Table2 | where Column != 123 | project d = f(10)// Supported:// f is a scalar function that references the tabular expression Table1,// but is invoked with no reference to the current row context f(10):let Table1 = datatable(xdate:datetime)[datetime(1970-01-01)];let Table2 = datatable(Column:long)[1235];let f = (hours:long) { toscalar(Table1 | summarize min(xdate) - hours*1h) };Table2 | where Column != 123 | project d = f(10)// Not supported:// f is a scalar function that references the tabular expression Table1,// and is invoked with a reference to the current row context f(Column):let Table1 = datatable(xdate:datetime)[datetime(1970-01-01)];let Table2 = datatable(Column:long)[1235];let f = (hours:long) { toscalar(Table1 | summarize min(xdate) - hours*1h) };Table2 | where Column != 123 | project d = f(Column)

Example of Restriction 2

// Not supported:// f is a tabular function that is invoked in a context// that expects a scalar value.let Table1 = datatable(xdate:datetime)[datetime(1970-01-01)];let Table2 = datatable(Column:long)[1235];let f = (hours:long) { range x from 1 to hours step 1 | summarize make_list(x) };Table2 | where Column != 123 | project d = f(Column)

Features that are currently unsupported by user-defined functions

For completeness, here are some commonly requested features for user-defined functions that are currently not supported:

  1. Function overloading: There's currently no way to overload a function (a way to create multiple functions with the same name and different input schema).

  2. Default values: The default value for a scalar parameter to a function must be a scalar literal (constant).

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